Linear Friction Welding of IN-718 Process Optimization and Microstructure Evolution
Linear Friction Welding (LFW) of IN-718 Superalloy was investigated under several processing conditions. The influence of process parameters such as frequency (60Hz to 100Hz), amplitude (2mm to 3mm) and frictional pressure (50MPa to 110MPa) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of welded specimens was determined. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, and micro-hardness testing were used to characterize the welded areas as well as the Thermo-Mechanically Affected Zones (TMAZ). In-situ thermocouple measurements were performed to follow temperature evolution in the specimens during the different phases of the LFW process. The analysis of the results indicated that for some specific conditions (f=80Hz, a=2mm and P=70MPa) a maximum temperature of 1200°C was attained during the last stage of the welding process, the burn-off phase. This temperature, very close to the alloy melting range, would be sufficient to cause partial liquation in this zone. Microscopic examinations revealed the presence of oxide particles aligned around the weld interface. Their concentration and distribution, varying with process parameters, affect the weld integrity. The TMAZ characterised by a global loss of strength (from 334HV to 250HV) is associated with temperatures exceeding 800°C and causing γ’ and γ’’ reversion. A narrow band of the TMAZ, exposed to high strains and temperatures, showed evidences of dynamic recovery and recrystallization (up to 67% of reduction in the matrix grain size). Visual and microscopic examination of the flash layer, revealed two distinct zones. Microstructure evolution and microhardness variations were associated to process parameters and the optimum conditions for obtaining defect free weldments were determined.
T. Chandra, K. Tsuzaki, M. Militzer and C. Ravindran
C. Mary and M. Jahazi, "Linear Friction Welding of IN-718 Process Optimization and Microstructure Evolution", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 15-17, pp. 357-362, 2007