摘要: Accurate acquisition for customer’s requirements is the base and key in product configuration design. However, original customer’s requirements must be decomposed in order to comprehend truly and apply them to guide product configuration design, because they are usually some fuzzy, general even contradictory customized demands. In the paper, two concepts are introduced for customer’s requirement decomposition. One is the requirement element, and the other is the granularity of requirement element. Moreover, the controlling principle for granularity of requirement element is given and the method of requirement decomposition is proposed. This method means semantic segmentation, semantic translation, supplement or subdivision of human-machine-environment and semantic combination. Customer’s abstract demands could be effectively decomposed into some specific requirement elements according to the proposed method of requirement decomposition as well as by controlling the granularity of requirement element reasonably. Finally, the customized design of a money-binding machine is taken as an example to validate the effectivity of proposed method.
摘要: This paper describes a numerical algorithm to determine the responses of the soil-structure interaction system due to known ground motion acceleration. A ground motion acceleration of known magnitude was suddenly applied to the soil-structure interaction system by direct method and then utilized this displacement to estimate others relative displacements by a Kalman filter technique. In order to examine the accuracy of the proposed method, the difference material soil-structure system is subjected to the actual ground motion acceleration. The results show that this method has the advantages of stability and accuracy.
摘要: Double threshold detection based on constraint judgment is proposed for micro-seismic signal detection. The improvement effect on Probability of False Alarm and influence on Probability of Detection are quantitatively analyzed with constraint judgment. The mathematical models of total PFA and PD of double threshold detection based on constraint judgment are built, and the validity of the mathematical model is verified by simulation tests and experiments. The results show that the signal-to-noise ratio under scheduled PFA and PD Call be decreased by introducing constraint judgment to double threshold detection, and improve the identification accuracy of micro-seismic signal.
摘要: Experiments were conducted to investigate the decolorization of methyl orange simulated wastewater in order to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of ultrasound(US) enhanced high-purity chlorine dioxide(ClO2) oxidation process. The results showed that in ClO2/US system the decolorization rate of methyl orange was up to 96%, which was increased by 8% as compared to ClO2 treatment alone. The decolorization of methyl orange with/without ultrasonic irradiation follows apparent pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant kapp was 0.19min-1 in the ClO2/US system, which was a little higher than 0.13min-1 of rate constant achieved in ClO2 treatment alone. It shows that ClO2/US system can be an effective technology for the decolorization of azo dyes in wastewater.
摘要: In order to assess the condition of the resource consumption and environmental emission in manufacturing process chains, .this study has proposed a method to assess their attributions from the viewpoint of green manufacturing, and has developed a comprehensive assessment system based on it. The results generated from the system can be used to diagnose the key factors producting the excessive resource consumption and environmental emission, and to assist technologist to optimize and improve on the green-orientation.
摘要: In this paper, the integrated technology based on resource and environment attributes is presented for the workshop planning and production operation. Applying this integrated technology, a demonstration workshop of thermoelectrical valve manufacturer has been constructed to meet the demands of enterprise development. On a principle of green planning, the workshop structure and partition function, the devices layout and the scheduling mode aiming at the minimum energy consumption and noise yield are rebuilt on the base of the present manufacturing process and devices in a representative manufacturer. In this research work, the actual production data of the manufacturer is gathered, arranged, formatted and quantified to build a resource and environment attribute database for the conventional manufacturing process. The key of the integrated technology is to model the full life cycle production for the typical products in the workshop. Via the attribute analysis of the resource consumptions and environment impacts, some adaptive processes of green manufacturing and several prototypes of process device are offered for the respective process of the real production in the workshop. The integrated technology for the workshop planning and production operation is entirely realized and an environmental benefit is gained remarkably.
摘要: The relationships among crown characteristics, crown fractal dimensions and water consumption were studied in seven 5-year-old poplar clones that were selected from the nursery garden of the Gaomi Forestry Bureau in China. The closest positive correlation was between single tree leaf area (TLA) and water consumption followed by the tree crown area (TCA). The leaf area index (LAI) and crown layer density (CLD) were positively correlated with water consumption but were not significantly correlated. There was a negative correlation between the crown shape ratio (CSR) of the L35, NL895 and I-107 poplars and water consumption. The CSR of the other clones was positively correlated with water consumption. But neither the positive nor negative correlations of CSR with water consumptions were significant. The crown characteristics of the fractal dimension had a similar variation trend. The fractal dimension had a significant positive correlation with TLA, LAI and CLD but no significant correlation with CSR and TCA. The fractal dimension of TCA (FDa) and the fractal dimension of crown volume (FDv) had a significant positive correlation with water consumption, and FDa was more closely correlated with water consumption than FDv. More fractal dimension resulted in more water consumption. Correlation analysis indicated that the presence of more foliage distributed in the crown surface or the more evenly distributed foliage in the inner crown resulted in more water consumption with the same leaf area.
摘要: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas. CO2 emission from different long-term fertilized black soils was investigated by incubation experiment at soil water content of 70% water holding capacity. Maximal CO2 flux was observed at the beginning of 24-h and 48-h incubation after the rewetting of dry soil. Combined fertilizer nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) with manure (M) emitted the highest CO2-C, was up to 175 mg kg-1. Compared to zero fertilization (CK), fertilizers application increased CO2 emission (P<0.05). Single fertilization N, P and potassium (K) increased CO2 emission 19%, 43% and 22%, respectively. Combined two-way or three-way fertilizer N, P and K also increased CO2 emission. Based on mineral fertilization, additional organic manure application furthered CO2 emission. Two-way fertilizers (NP, NK and PK) application with organic manure increased CO2 emission at the percentage of 398, 13.8 and 29.1, respectively (P<0.05). Although organic manure application ameliorated soil chemical, physical and biological conditions, organic manure fertilization increasing CO2 emission should be considered in agricultural practice.
摘要: Based on vehicle emissions of decontamination by using nanometer titanium dioxide of photocatalysis method, we had optimized test about content of nano-TiO2 and surfactant and utilized permeability technology to make environmental protection materials of concrete nano-TiO2, consequently decontaminate vehicle emissions. On this foundation, we tested degradation effect of nanometer titanium dioxide in simulation road surface by a kind of testing system that it was designed by us. Results of experiment revealed that decontaminating rate of the productions ranged from22% to 48% this kind of photochemical catalysis environmental protection material has good environment purification function.
摘要: In situ sludge reduction of the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process was investigated in this study and microbial community diversity in the system was analyzed by using a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach. Comparing to the conventional activated sludge method, the production of excessive sludge in the OSA process was shown to be efficiently reduced by 44-50 % and the organic loading rate was observed to have a slight impact on sludge yield. As demonstrated by the slight variation of Shannon diversity indices (SDI), the dominant microbial composition remained stable in the OSA sludge with the increase of Ns. About 63% of clones represented by predominant bands in the DGGE pattern were affiliated with the subclass of b-proteobacteria. A number of bacteria in the OSA process were phylogenetically related to uncultured bacteria isolated from enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) sludge.