作者: M. Hadi Kusuma, Nandy Putra, Surip Widodo, Anhar Riza Antariksawan

摘要: Heat pipe is considered being used as a passive system to remove residual heat that generated from reactor core when incident occur or from spent fuel pool. The present research is aimed to studying the characteristics of straight heat pipe as passive residual heat removal system. As an initial step, a numerical simulation was conducted to simulate the best experimental design set up being prepared for the next step of the research. The objective is to get the thermal hydraulic characteristic due to variation of heat flux of heat source. The thermal hydraulic RELAP5 MOD 3.2 code is used to simulate and analyze the straight heat pipe characteristics. Variations of heat flux are 1567 Watt/m^{2}, 3134 Watt/m^{2}, 4701 Watt/m^{2}, 6269 Watt/m^{2}, and 7837 Watt/m^{2}. Water as working fluid is heated on evaporation section with filling ratio 60%. Environmental air with variation 5 m/s and 10 m/s of velocity are used as external cooler. Straight heat pipe used in the simulation is wickless with 0.1 m of diameter and 6 m of length. The results show that higher heat flux given to the evaporator section will lead to more rapid heat transfer and achievement of steady state condition. The increasing of heat flux leads to an increase of evaporation of the working fluid and of pressure built in the heat pipe affecting higher saturation temperature of working fluid. Heat flux loading must consider the velocity of air as heat removal in the condenser to prevent dry out phenomenon in the evaporator. Based on the results, given the experimental set-up, the optimum range of experimental parameters could be determined.

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作者: Xi Bing Li, Ming Jian Li, Ming Li, Ying Si Wan

摘要: As an efficient heat conducting unit, micro heat pipe is widely used in high heat flux microelectronic chips, and thermal resistance is one of the factors that are crucial to its heat transfer capacity. Based on heat transfer theory, this paper established a theoretical model of total thermal resistance through analyzing the structure and heat transfer performance of circular heat pipe with trapezium-grooved wick, simplified the model and tested the micro heat pipe for its total thermal resistance performance by setting up a testing platform. The testing results show that when the micro heat pipe is in the optimal heat transfer state, its total thermal resistance well coincides with that from the established theoretical model. As for a micro heat pipe with trapezium-grooved wick, its total thermal resistance first decreases, then increases with heat transfer capability increment, and reaches the minimum when it is in the optimal state of heat transfer performance. That too much working fluid accumulates in evaporation section and the vapor velocity is rather low is the main cause for the greater thermal resistance when the pipe is in low heat transfer quantity, yet the greater total thermal resistance when the pipe is in high heat transfer quantity is mainly caused by the working fluid drying up in condensation section. The total thermal resistance is related to many factors, such as the thermal conductivity of tube-shell material, wall thickness, wick thickness, the number of the grooves, the lengths of condensation and evaporation sections, the diameter of vapor cavity etc.. Therefore, the structure parameters of a micro heat pipe with trapezium-grooved wick should be rationally designed according to specific conditions to ensure its heat transfer capacity and total thermal resistance to meet the requirements and be in the optimal state.

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作者: Emerald Ninolin, Godson Asirvatham Lazarus, K. Ramachandran

摘要: The thermal performance of a compact loop heat pipe is fabricated and tested for different heat inputs ranging from 30 W to 500 W using water and silver-water nanofluid with low volume concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.03% and 0.09%) in vertical orientation. A flat square evaporator having a bottom area of 30 mm × 30 mm and a height of 15 mm is used in the present study. The effect of heat input on the thermal resistance, evaporation and condensation heat transfer coefficient is experimentally investigated. The results showed that a reduction in the evaporator thermal resistance of 26.45% is achieved with 0.09 volume percentage of silver nanoparticles when compared with that of water. Further an enhancement in the convective heat transfer coefficient of 25.23% has been observed with the same volume concentration of silver nanoparticles. Addition of small amount of nanoparticles enhanced the operating range of heat pipe beyond 500 W and without the occurrence of any dry out conditions. From the outcome of this study, it is concluded that the compact loop heat pipe with flat square evaporator can be used for thermal control of electronic equipments with limited space.

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