Low Temperature Explosion for Nanometer Active Materials



This paper describes a new method for prediction of the Chapman–Jouguet detonation parameters of CaHbNcOdLieMnf explosives for mixture of some of low temperature explosion explosives at 0 = 1000 kg/m3. Explosion temperatures of water-gel explosives and explosive formulations are predicted using thermochemistry information. The methodology assumes that the heat of detonation of an explosive compound of products composition H2O–CO2–CO–Li2O–MnO2–Mn2O3 can be approximated as the difference between the heats of formation of the detonation products and that of the explosive, divided by the formula weight of the explosive. For the calculations in which the first set of decomposition products is assumed, predicted temperatures of explosion of water-gel explosives with the product H2O in the gas phase have a deviation of 153.29 K from results with the product H2O in the liquid state. Lithium and manganese oxides have been prepared by the explosion of water-gel explosives of the metal nitrates, M (NO3) x (M = Li, Mn) as oxidizers and glycol as fuels, at relative low temperature. We have also used the Dulong-Petit’s values of the specific heat for liquid phase H2O. Lithium manganese oxide powders with chrysanthemum-like morphology secondary particles, but with smaller primary particles of diameters from 5 to 30 nm and a variety of morphologies were found. The oxides produced by this cheap method affirmed the validity of explosion synthesis of nano-size materials for lithium ion batteries.




M.H. Aliabadi, Qingfen Li, Li Li and F.-G. Buchholz




X. H. Xie et al., "Low Temperature Explosion for Nanometer Active Materials", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 324-325, pp. 193-196, 2006


November 2006




[1] D.T. Burns, R.J. Lewis, and J. Bridges: Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 375 (1998), p.255.

[2] M.H. Keshavarz: Journal of Hazardous Materials Vol. A119 (2005), p.25.

[3] B.M. Rice, and J. Hare: Thermochimica Acta, Vol. 384 (2002), p.377.

[4] S.M. Xu: Journal of Shenyang Institute of Technology, Vol. 13 (1994), p.55.

[5] X.S. Xu, and W.X. Zhang, in: Theoretical Guide of Banausic State Equation. p.270, China Science Press (1986).

[6] J.A. Zukas, and W.P. Walters, in: Explosive Effects and Applications, p.124, in: High-Pressure Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, edited by R.A. Graham, Springer-Versa New York, Inc. (1998).

[7] D.L. Ye, J.H. Hu, in: Practical Handbook of Energetic Data for Inorganic Compounds (second edition), p.533, China Metallurgical Industry Press (2002).

[8] J.D. Bao, in: Applied Thermal Chemistry, p.94, East China Institute of Chemical Engineering Press (1989).

[9] J. Akhavan, in: The Chemistry of Explosives, p.103, The Royal Society of Chemistry (1998).

[10] B.H. Shao and K. Zhang, in: Explosive Welding Principle and Its Engineering Applications, p.18, Dalian Institute of Technology Press (1987).

[11] X.M. Lin, L.P. Li, G.S. Li, W.H. Su: Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 69 (2001), p.236.

[12] J.B. Donnet, E. Fousson, T.K. Wang, M. Samirant, C. Baras, and M.P. Johnson: Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 9 (2000), p.887.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0925-9635(99)00215-0

[13] S. Zeman: Thermochimica Acta, Vol. 384 (2002), p.137.

[14] P.W. Chen, F.L. Huang, S.R. Yun: Materials Research Bulletin, Vol. 39 (2004), p.1589.

[15] X.J. Li, X.H. Xie, and R.Y. Li: Explosion and Shock Waves. Vol. 25 (2005), p.271.

[16] X.H. Xie, X.J. Li, R.Y. Li, H.H. Yan, Y.D. Qu and T. Chen, in: Theory and Practice of Energetic Materials Vol. �, edited by Y.J. Wang, P. Huang and S.C. Li, p.169, China Science Press (2005).

[17] X.J. Li, X.H. Xie, R.Y. Li, H.H. Yan, Y.D. Qu and T. Chen, in: Theory and Practice of Energetic Materials Vol. �, edited by Y.J. Wang, P. Huang and S.C. Li, p.153, China Science Press (2005).

[18] R.Y. Li, X.J. Li, Z. Zhao, X.H. Xie, Y.D. Qu, Z.L. Wang and T. Chen: Journal of Materials and Metallurgy, Vol. 4 (2005), p.27.

[19] X.J. Li, R.Y. Li, Y.D. Qu, Z.L. Wang, X.H. Xie: Journal of Materials Science & Engineering, Vol. 123 (2005), p.451.