Materials Structure & Micromechanics of Fracture VI


doi: 10.4028/

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作者: M. Neil James, C.J. Christopher, Yan Wei Lu, K.F. Tee, Eann A Patterson
摘要: This paper presents a very brief overview of the philosophy underlying a plastic inclusion approach to defining the boundary stresses imposed on the applied elastic stress or displacement field by the plastic deformation attendant on crack growth in a ductile material. It leads to two new fracture mechanics parameters, KR and KS. KR defines a retardation component arising from wake contact and the Poisson’s contraction associated with the plastic zone, whilst KS describes a compatibility-induced component arising from shear at the elastic-plastic interface. These additional components imply that KF is not directly comparable with KI, as it describes the net driving force on the crack from the applied load.
作者: Haruyuki Inui, Takashi Oohashi, Norihiko L. Okamoto, Kyosuke Kishida, Katsushi Tanaka
摘要: The physical and mechanical properties of Co3(Al,W) with the L12 structure have been investigated both in single and polycrystalline forms. The values of all the three independent single-crystal elastic constants and polycrystalline elastic constants of Co3(Al,W) experimentally determined by resonance ultrasound spectroscopy at liquid helium temperature are 15~25% larger than those of Ni3(Al,Ta) but are considerably smaller than those previously calculated. When judged from the values of Poisson’s ratio, Cauchy pressure and Gh (shear modulus)/Bh (bulk modulus), the ductility of Co3(Al,W) is expected to be sufficiently high. Indeed, the value of tensile elongation obtained in air is as large as 28 %, which is far larger than that obtained in Ni3Al polycrystals under similar conditions.
作者: Duc Nguyen Manh, M. Muzyk, Krzysztof J. Kurzydlowski, Nadine L. Baluc, Michael Rieth, Sergei L. Dudarev
摘要: We describe a comprehensive ab initio investigation of phase stability and mechanical properties of W-Ta and W-V alloys, which are candidate materials for fusion power plant applications. The ab initio density functional calculations compare enthalpies of mixing for alternative ordered atomic structures of the alloys, corresponding to the same chemical composition. Combining the ab initio data with large-scale lattice Monte-Carlo simulations, we predict several low-energy intermetallic compounds that are expected to dominate alloy microstructures, and hence the low-temperature phase diagrams, for both alloys. Using the predicted ground-state atomic alloy configurations, we investigate the short-range order, point defect (vacancy and self-interstitial atoms) energies, and thermodynamic and mechanical properties of W alloys as functions of their chemical composition. In particular, we evaluate the anisotropic Young modulus for W-Ta and W-V alloys from ab initio elastic constant calculations, with the objective of comparing the predicted values with experimental micro-cantilever measurements. Also, using the calculated Poisson ratios for binary W alloys, which combine tungsten with more than 40 different alloying elements, we investigate if alloying improves the ductility of tungsten-based materials.
作者: J.W. Morris, D.C. Chrzan, Shigeru Kuramoto
摘要: Tensile tests of single crystals of Gum Metal (Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.3O (wt %)) showed, anomalously, that (1) extensive, stress-induced (bcc)”(orthorhombic) transformation occurred in a crystal pulled in the <110> direction, but no transformation was observed in crystals pulled in the <100> or <111> directions and (2) little or no transformation occurred in tensile tests of severely worked rods, which are polycrystals with very strong <110> texture. Analysis of the energetics of the ” transformation offers straightforward explanations for these results. (1) An ” precipitate has very low elastic energy if it forms as a thin plate with a habit near {11√2}. A <110> tensile load significantly decreases the energy of this plate, promoting the transformation; loading along <100> or <111> is much less effective. (2) While cold-swaged rods of Gum Metal have a strong <110> axial texture, their perpendicular planes are severely distorted, increasing the elastic energy of ” and inhibiting the transformation.
作者: Stefanie Stanzl-Tschegg, Karl Eichinger, Anja Weidner, Elmar Tschegg, Johannes Bernardi, Bernd Schönbauer
摘要: Fatigue cracks in polycrystalline copper may originate from PSBs or grain boundaries. They usually form at the specimen surfaces, but also internal small stage I (shear) cracks have been observed with the ECC/SEM technique. They are formed together with a strongly elongated dislocation cell structure, which is reflecting in many cases localized deformation in “slip lamellae” with eventual ladder-like features, being typical of PSBs. Both, PSBs and small non-propagating cracks are initiated at cyclic stress/plastic strain amplitudes below the conventionally reported PSB threshold values, if the number of cycles exceeds a minimum, e.g. approximately 5x108 in the VHCF range. The internal small cracks are formed not only in polycrystalline electrolytic copper of 99.98% purity but also in high purity (99.999%) material.
作者: Maxime Sauzay, Pierre Evrard, Karine Bavard
摘要: Slip localization is often observed in metallic polycrystals after cyclic deformation (persistent slip bands) or pre-irradiation followed by tensile deformation (channels). To evaluate its influence on surface relief formation and grain boundary microcrack nucleation, crystalline finite element (FE) computations are carried out using microstructure inputs (slip band aspect ratio/spacing). Slip bands (low critical resolved shear stress (CRSS)) are embedded in small elastic aggregates. Slip band aspect ratio and neighboring grain orientations influence strongly the surface slips. But only a weak effect of slip band CRSS, spacing and grain boundary orientation is observed. Analytical formulae are deduced which allow an easy prediction of the surface and bulk slips. The computed slips are in agreement with experimental measures (AFM/TEM measures on pre-irradiated austenitic stainless steels and nickel, copper and precipitate-strengthened alloy subjected to cyclic loading). Grain boundary normal stresses are computed for various materials and loading conditions. A square root dependence with respect to the distance to the slip band corner is found similarly to the pile-up stress field. But the equivalent stress intensity factor is considerably lower. Analytical formulae are proposed for predicting the grain boundary normal stress field depending on the microstructure lengths. Finally, an energy balance criterion is applied using the equivalent elastic energy release rate and the surface/grain boundary energies. The predicted macroscopic stresses for microcrack nucleation are compared to the experimental ones.
作者: Raúl Bermejo, Lucie Šestáková, Hannes Grünbichler, Tanja Lube, Peter Supancic, Robert Danzer
摘要: The fracture of mechanically loaded ceramics is a consequence of material critical defects located either within the bulk or at the surface, resulting from the processing and/or machining and handling procedures. The size and type of these defects determine the mechanical strength of the specimens, yielding a statistically variable strength and brittle fracture which limits their use for load-bearing applications. In recent years the attempt to design bio-inspired multilayer ceramics has been proposed as an alternative choice for the design of structural components with improved fracture toughness (e.g. through energy release mechanisms such as crack branching or crack deflection) and mechanical reliability (i.e. flaw tolerant materials). This approach could be extended to complex multilayer engineering components such as piezoelectric actuators or LTCCs (consisting of an interdigitated layered structure of ceramic layers and thin metal electrodes) in order to enhance their performance functionality as well as ensuring mechanical reliability. In this work the fracture mechanisms in several structural and functional multilayer components are investigated in order to understand the role of the microstructure and layered architecture (e.g. metal-ceramic or ceramic-ceramic) on their mechanical behaviour. Design guidelines based on experiments and theoretical approaches are given aiming to enhance the reliability of multilayer components.
作者: Stephen D. Antolovich, Robert L. Amaro, Richard W. Neu, A Staroselsky
摘要: In a world increasingly concerned with environmental factors and efficient use of resources, increasing operating temperatures of high temperature machinery can play an important role in meeting these goals. In addition, the cost of failure of such devices is rapidly becoming prohibitive. For example, in an airline crash airframe and engine manufacturers are, on average, held liable for 1,000,000 euros per fatality excluding the loss of property. Thus there is considerable pressure to make machinery that can operate much more safely at high temperatures. This means that the old ways of guarding against high temperature fatigue failure (e.g. factor of safety, S/N curves, creep life) are no longer acceptable; more reliable, accurate, and efficient means are needed to manage life, durability and risk. In this paper, high temperature fatigue is considered in terms of past successes and current challenges. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding damage mechanisms and their interactions both in terms of scientific interest and technological importance. Materials used in nuclear reactors (e.g. selected steels and solid solution Ni-base alloys) and in hot sections of jet engines (e.g. superalloys) are used as vehicles to illustrate damage evolution and interaction. Phenomenological life prediction models are presented and compared with physics-based damage evolution/interaction models which are based on observed physical processes such as creep/fatigue/environment interactions. It is shown that in many cases, in spite of the emphasis on creep-fatigue interactions, the most damaging forms of damage that occur under thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) loading result from the interaction of slip bands with oxidized boundaries.
作者: Ulrich Krupp, I. Roth, Hans Jürgen Christ, M. Kübbeler, Claus Peter Fritzen, M. Scharnweber, C.G. Oertel, Werner Skrotzki
摘要: During high-cycle-fatigue loading of metastable austenitic steel AISI304L, the elastic anisotropy between neighboring grains causes the occurrence of stress peaks at grain boundaries, which again act as crack nucleation sites. This is in particular the case at twin boundaries. Cyclic crack tip plasticity leads to a transformation from  austenite to ´ martensite when different slip bands are activated, alternating during their operation. By means of in-situ fatigue testing in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in combination with electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), the distributions of grain size, geometry, and crystallographic orientation relationship were correlated with the local occurrence of slip, martensite formation and fatigue-crack initiation and propagation. It was shown that the extent of martensite formation ahead of a propagating crack increases with increasing crack length and eventually, due to its higher specific volume, gives rise to transformation-induced crack-closure effects. The variation in the crack-propagation rate depending on the local microstructure was simulated by means of a short crack model, where the displacement fields within the crack, the adjacent plastic zone and the grain boundaries in combination with the martensite volume increase strain are superimposed by means of a boundary-element approach.