Intergranular Strains in Pre-Strained and Welded Pipes



Neutron diffraction has been used to investigate the weld residual stresses and the intergranular residual strains in butt-welded 316H pipes. Measurements have been made on pipes subjected to varying degrees of plastic pre-straining before welding, in order to assess the effects of plastic strain on the weld residual stresses and the intergranular strains in the material. The intergranular strains following plastic deformation will also be affected by the annealing effect of the welding. Pipes were initially prepared with plastic strain of 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25% plastic deformation. Thereafter, the pipes were cut in half and welded with a circumferential butt-weld. Bar specimens were extracted from the remote end of the 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25% pre-strained and welded pipes. Cross-weld bar specimens were also machined from the 0 and 20% pre-strained and welded pipes. Neutron diffraction measurements were made at ENGIN-X, ISIS and FRM-II, Munich. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intergranular strains developed after pre-straining from measurements made in remote bar specimens from the remote-end of the pipes. The annealing effect of the welding cycle on the intergranular strains is also studied, with measurements done at several points on cross-weld bar specimens, obtaining the strain response of different hkl lattice planes. The results show that the {200} and {220} planes are at the extremes of response during loading. Furthermore, the welding thermal cycling relaxed the intergranular strains from the prior plastic deformation.




Y. Akiniwa, K. Akita and H. Suzuki




M.O. Acar et al., "Intergranular Strains in Pre-Strained and Welded Pipes", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 652, pp. 13-18, 2010


May 2010




[1] Kamaya, M., A.J. Wilkinson, and J.M. Titchmarsh, Acta Materialia, 2006. 54(2): pp.539-548.

[2] Chang, K. -H. and C. -H. Lee, Materials and Structures, 2009. 42(6): pp.791-801.

[3] Hauk, V., Structural and Residual Stress Analysis by Nondestructive Methods 1997: Elsevier. 59, 129.

[4] Hofmann, M. and R.C. Wimpory, Int. J. Pressure Vessels and Piping, 2009. 86(1): pp.122-125.

[5] S. I. Campbell, F. A. Akeroyd, C. M. Moreton-Smith, Open GENIE - Analysis and Control, Condensed Matter, arXiv: cond-mat/0210442v2, (2002).

[6] Pang, J.W.L., et al., Acta Materialia, 2000. 48(5): pp.1131-1140.

[7] Quinta da Fonseca, J., et al., Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2006. 437(1): pp.26-32.